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- ICAR AIEEA UG 21.05.2016 (Saturday) 10:00 A.M to 12:30 P.M. (2 ½ hrs)
- ICAR AIEEA PG Exam Date & Time is 22.05.2016 (Sunday) 10:00 A.M to 12:30 P.M. (2 ½ hrs)
ICAR Undergraduate AIEEA UG Exam 2016.
- Stream – A (Agriculture/Biology)
- Stream – B (Mathematics)
- Stream – wise Courses Available for Admission & Subjects to be Attempted in Examination
Table of Page Contents
ICAR AIEEA UG Syllabus.
Thermal eduilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of thermodynamics).Heat, work and internal energy.First law of thermodynamics. Second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engines and refrigerators.
Unit-9: Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory
Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas Kinetic theory of gases – assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature; rms speed of gas molecules; degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heats of gases; concept of mean free path, Avogadro’s number.
Periodic motion – period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple Harmonic Motion (S.H.M) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M.- kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum- derivation of expression for its time period; free, forced and damped oscillations, resonance. Wfeve motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics. Beats, Doppler effect.
Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law – force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in uniform electric field. Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside). Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarization capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor. Van de Graaff generator
Unit-12: Current Electricity
Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V – I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.lnternal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel.Kirchoffs laws and simple applications Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge. Potentiometer – principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a coll
Unit-13: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment.Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field Force betvrteen two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter
Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment.Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements Para-, dia- and ferro – magnetic substances, with examples.Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths.Permanent magnets.
Unit-14: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents Self and mutual inductance. Need for displacement current. Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattless current AC generator and transformer.
Unit-15: Electromagnetic waves
Displacement current. Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas onlyJ.Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.
Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmakefs formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.Scattering of light – blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset. Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia, hypermetropia, presbyopia and astigmatism) using lenses. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers. Wave optics: wave front and Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wo fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’ principle. Interference, Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes.Polarisation, plane polarised light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.
Unit-17: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation
Dual nature of radiation.Photoelectric effect. Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light. Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment.
Unit-18: Atomsa Nuclei
Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s mcxlel of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones.Radioactivity, alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear reactor, nuclear fusion.
Unit-19: Electronic Devices
Semiconductors, semiconductor diode – I -V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I – V characteristics of LED, photodiode, sofar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch
Unit-20: Communication Systems
Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwdth of transmission medium Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation. Need for modulation Production and detection of an amplitude-modulated wave
Unit-1: some Basic concepts of Chemistry
General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry. Historical approach to particulate nature of matter, laws of chemical combination. Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules. Atomic and molecular masses mole concept and molar mass: percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.
Unit-2: Solid State
Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties.
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties – relative lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of Boiling Point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass.
Unit 4 Structure of Atom
Discovery of electron, proton and neutron; atomic number, isotopes and isobars Thomson’s model and its limitations, Rutherford’s model and its limitations. Bohr’s model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p, and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.
unit-5: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements -atomic radii, ionic radii. Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electro negativity, valence.
Unit-6: Chemical Bonding and Molecular structure
Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond: bond parameters Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR (Valence shell electron pair repulsion) theory, concept of hybridization, involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital; theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only), hydrogen bond.
Unit-7: States of Matter: Gasesand Liquids
Three states of matter. Intermolecular interactions, type of bonding, melting and boiling points. Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law. Charles law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law.ldeal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro’s number.Ideal gas equation.Derivation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature Liquid State – Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations)
Concepts of System, types of systems, surroundings Work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of DU and DH, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of: bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation. Phase transformation, ionization, and solution Introduction of entropy as a state function, free energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes, criteria for equilibrium.
Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium – Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium – ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionteation, concept of pH.Hydrolysis of salts. Buffer solutions, solubility product, common ion effect.
Unit-10: Redox Reactions
Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox reactions, applications of redox reactions.
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydrides – ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, properties and structure; hydrogen as a fuel.
Unit-12: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)
Group 1 and Group 2 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses
Unit-13: Preparation and properties of some important compounds
Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium CaO, CaC03 and industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca
Unit-14: Some p-Block Elements
General Introduction to p-Block Elements: Group 13 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence. Variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group; Boron- physical and chemical properties, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminum: uses, reactions with acids and alkalies.
unit-15: Group 14 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first element. Carbon – catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some important compounds: oxides. Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites.
Unit-16: Organic Chemistry
Some Basic Principles and Techniques
General introduction, methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation. Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals, carbocations, carbanions, electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions
Classification of hydrocarbons
Alkanes – Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis
Alkenes – Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene) geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation; chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophile addition
Alkynes – Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties. Methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of – hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.
Aromatic hydrocarbons Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; benzene resonance, aromaticity; chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution. – nitration, sulphonation. halogenation, Friedel-Craffs alkylation and acylation: directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.
Conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell – electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, fuel cells; corrosion
Unit-19: Chemical Kinetics
Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment)
Unit-20: Surface Chemistry
Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids; catalysis : homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophilic, lyophobic, multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect. Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation, emulsion— types of emulsions.
Unit-21: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining, occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.
unit-22: p-Block Elements Group 15 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen – preparation, properties and uses; compounds of nitrogen: preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous-allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCL, PCI-j and oxoacids
Unit-23: Group 16 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen preparation, properties and uses; simple oxides; Ozone Sulphur – allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).
Unit-24: Group 17 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
Unit-25: Group 18 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration. Occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit-26: d and f Block Elements
General introduction .electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation preparation and properties of K-CrO and KMnOv
Lanthanoids – electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction.
Actinoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states
Unit-27: Coordination Compounds
Coordination compounds – Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, bonding; isomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems)
Unit-28: Haioalkanes and Haloarenes
Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions
Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only) Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
Unit-29: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers Alcohols
Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses of methanol and ethanol.Phenols :Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophilic substitution reactions, uses of phenols. Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit-30: Aldehydes. Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses
Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit-31: Organic compounds containing Nitrogen
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary secondary and tertiary amines.
Cyanides and Isocyanides – will be mentioned at relevant places in context
Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Carbohydrates- Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide (glucose and fructose), oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); importance.
Proteins – Elementary idea of a-amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of amines-primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.
Vitamins – Classification and functions.
Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA
Classification – natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon, polyesters, Bakelite, rubber.
Unit-34: Environmental Chemistry
Environmental pollution – air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smog, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming – pollution due to industrial wastes; green cherrxstry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution
Unit-35: Chemistry in Everyday life
1 Chemicals in medicines – analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
2. Chemicals in food – preservatives, artificial sweetening agents.
3. Cleansing agents – soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
BIOLOGY (BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY)
Unit: 1 The Living World
Nature and scope of Biology.Methods of Biology.Our place in the universe.Laws that govern the universe and life.Level of organization.Cause and effect relationship.
Being alive. What does it mean? Present approaches to understand life processes, molecular approach; life as an expression of energy; steady state and homeostasis; self duplication and survival; adaptation; death as a positive part of life.
Origin of life and its maintenance.Origin and diversity of life.Physical and chemical principles that maintain life processes The living crust and interdependence.The positive and negative aspects of progress in biological sciences.The future of the Irving world, identification of human responsibility in shaping our future
Unit: 2 Unit of Life
Cell as a unit of life. Small biomolecules; water, minerals, mono and oligosaccharides, lipids, amino acids, nucleotides and their chemistry, cellular location and function Macromolecules in cells – their chemistry, cellular location and functional significance.Polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids Enzymes; chemical nature, classification, mechanism in action-enzyme complex, allosteric modulation (brief), irreversible activation Biomembranes; Fluid mosaic model of membrane, role in transport, recognition of external information (brief).Structural organization of the cell; light and electron microscopic views of cell, its organelles and their functions; nucleus mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum.Golgi complex, lysosomes, microtubules, cell vail, cilia and flagella, vacuoles, cell inclusions.A general account of cellular respiration.Fermentation, biological oxidation (A cycle outline), mitochondrial electron transport chain, high energy bonds and oxidative phosphorylation, cell reproduction; Process of mitosis and meiosis.
Unit: 3 Diversity of Life
Introduction. The enormous variety of living things, the need for classification to cope with this variety; taxonomy and phylogeny; shortcomings of a tyro kingdom classification as plants and animals; the five kingdom classification, Monera, Protista, Partake, Fungi and Animalia; the basic features of five kingdom classification, modes of obtaining nutrition- autotrophs and heterotrophs Life style producers, consumers and decomposers.Unicellularity and multicellularity, phylogenetic relationships.Concepts of species, taxon and categories – hierarchical levels of classification; binomial nomenclature; principles of classification and nomenclature; identification and nature of viruses and bacteriophages; kingdom Monera-archaebacteria – life in extreme environments; Bacteria, Actinomycetes, Cyanobacteria.Examples & illustration of autotrophic and heterotrophic life; mineralizes-nitrogen fixers; Monera in cycling matter; symbiotic forms; disease producers.Kingdom Protista-Eukaryotic unicellular organisms, development of flagella and cilia; beginning of mitosis; syngamy and sex.Various life styles shown in the major phyla.Evolutionary precursors of complex life forms.Diatoms, dincflagellates, slime moulds, protozons; symbiotic forms.Plant kingdom-complex autotrophs, red brown and green algae; conquest of land, bryophytes, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms.Vascularization; development.